Démocratie ontologique, phénoménologie démocrate: Jan Patočka et Jean-Luc Nancy
Keywords:Community, Democracy, Nancy, Patočka, Politics
Le travail cherche à rapprocher les réflexions philosophico-politiques de Jan Patočka et Jean-Luc Nancy à partir du sujet de la démocratie. En analysant la caractéristique «non-politique» de la pensée patočkienne, on soutient que le philosophe tchèque permet de penser un sens onto-phénoménologique pour la démocratie, appartenant à la nature humaine et notamment donné dans le troisième mouvement de l’existence. L’ontologie du singulier-pluriel de Nancy, pour sa part, reformule la différence entre l’être et l’étant par la voie de la distinction entre la politique et le politique, de façon à radicaliser l’idée de l’être-avec et définir la démocratie, non selon un forme de gouvernement, mais comme la vérité de la communauté. Dans le deux cas (l’un implicite, l’autre explicite), ce concept de démocratie, qui sape les fondements métaphysiques et politiques plus traditionnels, posera à l’être-en-commun au cœur de toute enquête philosophique et comprendra son essence comme protestation.
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